The IoT Stack or architecture
IoT applications are made up of a collection of protocols, standards and technologies – there is no universal model to describe it. Varying network topologies, including IoT Mesh, Star and Poin-to-Point are used for different contexts. Here is our simplified overview of the IoT stack, i.e. the key concepts that you will have to consider when you develop an IoT solution.
IoT Applications or Services
IoT applications are at the top of the IoT protocol stack and provide the use-case specific functionalities, user interfaces and data transactions that are usually considered to be a part of an IoT application. The IoT application software converts the use-case, for example – a remote valve monitoring solution or an intelligent washroom solution into a programmable set of actions that the IoT devices is expected to perform in the context of the given use-case.
IoT devices are the most visible part of an IoT solution. There are various types of IoT Devices in many industrial and consumer segments – sensors, actuators, trackers, cars, cameras. Despite the countless types of IoT devices they all comprise of a common set of functionalities when it comes to IoT technologies. The IoT devices always contain an IoT application software (including middleware and operating system), device management and data management client software, a wireless communication module and the connectivity service.
Device and Data Management
IoT applications need a variety of enabler functionalities from the underlying technology layers. IoT Device Management and Data Management layers help to provide these functionalities for: IoT device provisioning, device software and operating system updates, data input/output capabilities. They ensure that the IoT applications can handle and transmit data, and manage the IoT devices in different operational scenarios. Standard examples of IoT Data Management protocols include MQTT and CoAP, and those of IoT Device Management are LwM2M and OMA-DM, to name a few.
IoT Mesh, Star and Point-to-Point Network Topologies
There are three main network topologies used in IoT: Mesh IoT, Star and Point-to-Point networks. The Mesh Topology is the most deployed networking architecture for the massive IoT applications. Our blog will give you an overview of the four most popular IoT protocols used to create a mesh IoT network.
IoT Communication Protocols
IoT applications are distributed networked systems, according to the definition. IoT devices must be able to communicate with each other, and with the Cloud. There are several wireless IoT Communication Protocols, and different protocols are ideal for different applications. A connected vehicle needs a communication protocol that provides global roaming, low latency and high bandwidth, while an intelligent washroom solution requires a short-range connectivity and low bandwidth.
The IoT Communication Protocols Comparison table gives you the chance to study and compare the most relevant aspects, attributes and features of the most popular IoT Communication Protocols in use today.
|Connectivity Garage Homepage||IoT Protocols Comparison||IoT frequency bands|
|LTE Cat 1||LTE Cat M1||EC-GSM-IoT|
|LoRa||Google Thread||Bluetooth LE|
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